Características da interface de e-commerces B2C que motivam ou desmotivam consumidores
Durante os últimos dez anos, o e-commerce brasileiro vem registrando constante crescimento. Como consequência, o consumidor também está modificando seus hábitos de realizar compras, optando cada vez mais pelas compras online. A modalidade online de compras traz ao consumidor mais uma necessidade: interagir com uma interface durante seu processo de compras. Assim, os componentes da interface do e-commerce passam a influenciar a orientação e a efetiva concretização da compra online. Para investigar quais aspectos da interface motivam ou desmotivam os e-consumidores, realizamos um ensaio de interação com 45 participantes. Os resultados revelaram que os aspectos informacionais, funcionais e o design visual afetam diretamente a motivação do e-consumidor durante a sua navegação em sites de e-commerce B2C.
Design de interface, motivação, e-commerce
TITLE: B2C e-commerce interface features that motivate or demotivate consumers
In the last ten years, companies have been directing their expenses and investments in e-commerce B2C, according to the 16th research of e-commerce in the Brazilian market publicized by FGV-EAESP, this change made that the e-commerce record a growth of 127%. The research emphasizes that the transition of e-commerce BC2 has continued rising, recording a growth of 8.23% in 2014 compared to the previous year (FUNDAÇÃO GETÚLIO VARGAS-EAESP, 2014). From these data, we can understand that the consumer is converting their shopping habits, migrating to the online form. It was proved by the Webshoppers report 2014, the e-commerce B2C record that in 2013 9.1 million of e-consumers made their first online purchase, predicting a growing estimative of 20% in 2014. (E-BIT, 2014). With all this movement in e-commerce B2C, came the questioning of our study, inserted in motivational aspects of e-consumer when browsing in the e-commerce B2C interface. The motivation, according to Reeve (2008) is an intern process that energizes manages people behavior. The generated behavior has a purpose facing towards to the achievement of a specific objective or result. During the execution of a task, for ex-ample, make a purchase by e-commerce, the motivations define where we find the pleasures and we seek the good sensations to achieve an aim. However, if during the process of the achievement presents obstacles, difficulties, requiring a higher cognitive load, the e-consumers tend to give up, because mobilize their energy in frustration, causing irritation when they try to overcome the obstacles to achieve their aim. (GOLEMAN, 2012). Besides, the stimulus that influence the e-consumer behavior may be internally, for example, desire, wish or may be externally, a promotion, advertisement, etc. The influences can arise from individual differences, for example, age, values, or even by environment influences, such as social class. (CHENG e YEH, 2009; HUITT, 2011 e REEVE, 2008). In front of these emotional aspects, we can ask ourselves how the e-consumers create their motivations during an interaction with e-commerce B2C? This interaction occurs intermediated by an interface, defined in this research as objects collection, tools, languages that are between people and machines that it intended to use, such as computers screens (LANSDALE e ORMEROD, 1994). Therefore, the website interface needs to supply objects, tools, languages, which establish interaction so that the e-consumers can realize their shops. The interface components of an e-commerce B2C were divided in two categories: (1) interaction objects – created by establishing relations among windows, menus, bot-toms, etc. in a functional and structural perspective and (2) the audiovisual resources – created by relations among images, textual elements, schematics, etc... that convey meanings (CYBIS, 2003; CYBIS, BETIOL e FAUST, 2007). We enter into the scope of this triad: e-commerce, motivation and interface, that from the online purchase done by the interface the e-consumers browsing and manifest their motivations. Kalbach (2007, p.45) emphasizes that “the information is not just visualized, it is experienced”. This, interacting with the e-commerce the e-consumer creates comportment through his emotions, as well as the influences created by the reactions during the experienced browsing (KALBACH, 2007). In this sense, arise the principal motive of this study, which interface aspects motivate or discourage the e-consumer during the browsing by the B2C e-commerce.
With the claim to obtain answers about what motivate or discourage during the browsing of the B2C e-commerce, we did an interaction test with e-consumers that have already realized online purchases. After the test the e-consumers were invited to answer a post- interaction questionnaire, that had questions destined to summarize the motivational experience during the browsing by B2C website. The questionnaire application results in what motivated or discourage more during the interaction. The study participants were analyzed by the criterion non-probabilistic (sample by quotas), divided into four groups containing a minimum of 11 participants, in other words, population elements constant in the same proportion. (SILVA e MENEZES, 2001). These groups were formed through a survey questionnaire, formed by eight questions, defined to categorize the groups division. With this, we get the participation of 45 respondents, divided in:
11 participants: motivated WITH negative experience;
11 participants: motivated WITHOUT negative experience;
11 participants: discouraged WITH negative experience;
11 participants: discouraged WITHOUT negative experience.
With the groups defined, it was scheduled the interaction test that consists in: (1) acceptance of the test intermediated by a free and informed consent form; (2) choice of the B2C e-commerce of their preference to browsing and manifested motivated and discourage points; (3) use of the verbalization technique (think-aloud protocol). To register the test, it was used a portable reporter, as well as, the Camtasia Studio soft-ware to record the computer screen during the browsing. To finalize the test the par-ticipant answered the post-interaction questionnaire.
From the data provided by the 45 participants of the interaction test, we defined eight categories (general appearance, audiovisual resources, informational, interaction objects, access, tools and functions, promotions and generals), structured by grouping of similar answers and aspects by informational categories, graphics and functional of the B2C website. The graphic representation of the eight categories was distributed by suggestions that motivate and discourage the e-consumers during the browsing on B2C websites interfaces. Below, we demonstrate examples of the aspects representation found during the method application.
Motivational aspects in identification.
Demotivational aspects in delivery.
(view the images in the Portuguese PDF)
We emphasizes that not all the categories were manifested by the participants in all the stages of the online purchase process, which consist of the home page until check-out. The result of motivates aspects had emphasis on the information detail, in other words, the informational aspects are essential to the browsing satisfaction. In discourages aspects the emphasis was directed towards interface general appearance, by excess, making the information of location difficult. In the same sense, post-interaction questionnaire result confirmed the test results, proving that participants are dissatisfied with information presentation and excessive among of screens (work-load), overloading the interaction during an online purchase.
To investigate the B2C e-commerce interface aspects and obtain the behavior manifested during the test answered by e-consumer, we can conclude that the participants of this research appreciate a good informational design, during the browsing they want to find a good organization and provision of the elements. They discourage are confirmed by a deficient of visual presentation, disorganization of the information, lack of diagramming e contents placement in B2C interfaces. Thus, the results confirm that the visual design of B2C websites is a determinant factor in e-consumer judge and behavior, the visual appeal causes motivation or dis-courage during the browsing. We can state that the participants are showing interest in the need for interface provide guidance and ease in aims during the browsing, eliminating unnecessary information or excess.
Interface design, motivation, e-commerce
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